Analogy – Verbal Reasoning Questions : How to Attemt an Analogy



The word analogy means “an agreement or correspondence in certain respect between things otherwise different —- a resemblance of relations, as in the phrase, “knowledge is to the mind, what light is to the eye”;relation in general: likeness: correspondence of a word or a phrase with the genius of a language, as learned from the manner in which its words and phrases are ordinarily formed: similarity of derivative or inflectional processed.”

TYPES OF ANALOGY TESTS
First Type:

The first type is that in which two words which have some relationship with each other are
presented. These are followed by another word and a number of choices. One word from the choices is to be  picked up to establish the same relation with the third word as the first two have.

For example —-
Day is no Night as Cold is to
(A) Ice (B) Wet
(C) Warm (D) Snow
The correct answers is (C).
Day and Night bear the relation of the opposites. As cold is opposite of warm.

Second Type:

Part relationship —– In this type of relationship, the two words represent the parts of a bigger thing. For example —
Lyric is to Ode as
Head is to legs
Sky is to earth
Bomb is to science
Newspaper is to journalist
The correct answer is (A).
In the above quoted example, Lyric and Ode are two types of poems. Similarly, head and legs are two parts of the human body.

Third Type:

Another type of analogy is in which one of the four relationship element is not given. One
out of the choices is selected. Example —-
Ship is to Fish as
(A) Kite (B) Feather
(C) Tree (D) Chirp
is to bird
The correct answer is (A).
Explanation —- Both ship and fish are found in water. This is the relationship between the two words. For bird, we will have to pick up kite because both are seen in air.

HOW TO ATTEMPT THIS QUESTION

Step One — Establish the relationship between the first two words.
Step Two –~- Find the same relationship among the choices which follows the pattern of the two
words.

KINDS OF RELATIONSHIP

1. Purpose relationship _ Example _ Glove: Balls as
(A) Hook: Fish (B) Winter: Wea_ther
(C) Games: Sports (D) Stadium: Seats
The correct answer is (A)
The purpose of glove is to help in catching the ball and the purpose of hook is to catch fish. The
correct answer is (A)
2. Cause and effect relationship;_Example__ Race: Fatigue as: ‘
(A) French: Athlete ` (B) Fast: Hunger
(C) Art: Bug (D) Walking: Running
The correct answer is (B) because fatigue is the effect of race; hunger is the effect of fast.
3. Part whole relationship  Example  Snake: Reptile as
‘ (A) Patch: Thread (B) Removal: Snow
(C) Struggle: Wrestle (D) Hand: Clock
4. Action to object and object to action relationship, Examples
A. Kick: Football:
(A) Kill: Bomb (B) Break: Pieces
(C) Question: Team (D) Smoke: Pipe
B. Steak: Broil:
(A) Bread: Bake (B) Food: Sell
(C) Wine: Pour (D) Sugar: Spill
Kick shows action and Football the object of action. This very relationship is represented in (D)i.e., smoking is action and pipe is the object. For B answer is (A). ‘

5. Synonym relationship
Enormous: Huge as
(A) Rough: Rock , (B) Muddy: Unclear
(C) Purse: Kitchen (D) Black: White
The correct answer is (B) because “muddy” and unclear are synonyms.

6. Antonym relationship- Example- Purity: Evil as
(A) Suavity: Bluntness (B)”North: Climate
(C) Angle: Horns (D) Boldness: Victory
The correct answer is (A) because the two words are antonyms.
Place relationship-Example- Faisal Mosque: Islamabad as
(A) Red Square: Moscow (B)Albany: New York
(C) India: Madras (D) Pakistan: Nepal
Faisal Mosque is situated in Islamabad so is Albany in New York.

8. Degree relationship-Example- Warm: Hot as
(A) Glue: Paste (B) Climate: Weather
(C) Bright: Genius (D) Frown: Anger
Warm is less hot and frown is less anger.
9. Sequence relationship-Spring: Summer at
(A) Thursday: Wednesday
(B) Wednesday: Monday _
(C) Monday: Wednesday
(D) Wednesday: Thursday
Summer comes after Spring so does Thursday after Wednesday.
10. Association relationship -Example-Devil: Wrong as
(A) Colour: Sidewalk (B) Slipper: State
(C) Ink: Writing (D) Picture: Bed ,
Devil is associated with wrongs so ink is associated with writing.
11. Grammatical relationship- Example-Restore: Climb as
(A) Segregation: See (B) Nymph: In ‘

(C) Room: Although (D) Run: See

Restore and climb are verbs so are run and see.

 EXAMPLES WITH EXPLANATORY ANSWERS
Example 1  BRIM: HAT::
(A) hand: glove
(B) spoke: umbrella
(C) skirt: hem
(D) snood: hood
(E) lace: shoe
Answer: The correct answer is (E)
What is the relationship between BRIM AND HAT? A brim is a part of a hat, so the relationship is
that of pan to whole. The next step is to examine the answer choices to find another pair of words which bear the same relation to each other. Consider each answer choice in turn.
(A) A hand is not a part of a glove, so eliminate (A).
(B) A spoke is part of an umbrella, so (B) is a likely choice. But don’t mark your answer yet. You
must always look at all five choices before making your final decision.
(C) A hem is part of a skin, but BEWARE. The relationship in (C) is whole (the skirt) to part (the
hem), which is the reverse of the initial relationship. Your answer must maintain the same relationship in the
same sequence as the original pair. Eliminate (C). A
(D) If you know that a snood is a hair net, you can see that snood, hood, and hat are all headgear.
However, a snood is not a part of a hood, so (D) is incorrect. If you do not know the meaning of one word among the choices, do not fall into the trap of choosing that answer just because it’s unfamiliar. Consider all the choices carefully before you mark an unknown answer as correct.
(E) A lace is a part of a shoe, so (E) appears to be a perfectly good answer.
Having found two likely answers, (B) and (E), you must go back to the original pair and determine its other distinguishing characteristics. A brim is a part of a hat, but it is not a necessary part. Not all hats have brims. A lace is a part o fa shoe, but it is not a necessary part, Some shoes have buckles and some are slip-ons. A spoke, however, is a necessary part of an umbrella. Furthermore, a brim is a part of a hat, which is wearing apparel. A lace is part of a shoe, which is also wearing apparel. But an umbrella is not something to wear.
Thus there are two counts on which to eliminate (B) and to choose (E) as the best answer.
Usually, the problem with analogies is refining the relationship to find the best answer. Sometimes, however, the difficulty will be in finding even one correct answer.If this happens, you may have to redefine the relationship. Consider an analogy which begins LETTER: WORD. You first thought is probably that a letter is part of a word, and so you look for an answer choice that shows a pan-to-whole relationship.
However, suppose the question looks like this:
Example 2, LETTER: WORD:: `
(A) Procession: Parde (B) Dot: Dash
(C) Whisper: Orate (D) Song: Note
(E) Spell: Recitc
Answer: The correct answer is (D).
Not one of these choices offers a part-to-whole relationship. Returning to the original pair, you must then consider other relationship between letter and word. If letter is not “letter of the alphabet,” but, rather, “written communication,” then a word is part of a letter and the relationship becomes that of the whole to its part, Now the answer is immediately clear. A song is the whole of which a note is a part.
Example 3. PILOT: STEER:
(A) Chef: Dine (B) Boss: Obey
(C) Lawyer: Retain (D) Guard: Protect
Answer: The correct answer is (D)
At first glance several of these answers may seem to work. “A pilot is someone who steers,” “A
soldier is someone who is commanded.” The relationship looks promising, but it’s’ not correct. Ask yourself who is doing what to whom? In the original pair, the pilot is doing something: the pilot is steering. The choices B and C: a boss is someone who is obeyed: a lawyer is someone who is retained (hired). Again, the original grammatical relationship is reversed. By definition, a pilot is a person who steers. In the same way, by definition, a guard is a person who protects,

Example 4. INTERLOPE: INTRUSION:
(A) Witness: Interrogation (B) Actor; Intermission
(C) Recluse: Interference (D) Mediator; intercession
Answer: The correct answer is (D).
Again, ask yourself who is doing what to whom. An interloper is a person who butts in or thrusts
himself into the business of others. An interloper commits an intrusion; he or she intrudes. A witness, on the other hand, is not the person who conducts the interrogation A witness is the person who is being interrogated.You can eliminate choice (A) and any other answer choices in which the original relationship is reversed. The mediator or go-between is the person who acts, trying to reconcile quarreling parties by means
of intercession.
Example 5. CONSTELLATION: STARS:
(A) Prison: Bars (B) Assembly: Speaker
(C) Troupe: Actors (D) Mountain: Peak
Answer: The correct answer is (C)
A constellation is made up of stars. A troupe (not troop but troupe) is made up of actors. Choice C is correct.
Note, by the way, the characteristics of the analogy you have just analyzed, CONSTELLATION:
STARS. It is a good analogy. The relationship between the words is built-in; if you look up constellation in a dictionary, you will see that a constellation is a group of stars. The words are related by definition. Your correct answer choice has got to have the same characteristics as the original pair. The words must have a clear relationship. They must be related by definition, if you substitute them in your test sentence, they must fit it exactly.
Example 6. FISH: TROUT:
(A) Ocean: Wave (B) Mammal: Whale
(C) Bird: Aviary (D) Antenna: Insect
Answer: The correct answer is (B) .
A trout is a kind of fish. A`whale is a kind of mammal. (Class and Members)
Example 7. DIMMED: LIGHT:
(A) Beached: Texture (B) `Muff`led: Sound
(C) Measured: Weight (D) Tragrant: Smell
Answer: The correct answer is (B)
Light that is dimmed is lessened in brightness. Sound that is muffled is lessened in volume.
Example 8. DOCTOR: DISEASE:
(A) Moron: Imbecility
(B) Pediatrician: Senility
(C) Psychiatrist: Maladjustment
(D) Broker: Stocks
Answer: The correct answer is (C)
A doctor attempts to treat a disease. A psychiatrist attempts to treat a maladjustment.
Example 9. PATRON: SUPPORT
(A) Spouse: Divorce
(B) Restaurant: Management
(C) Counselor: Advice
(D) Host: Hostility
answer: The correct answer is (C). A patron by definition provides patronage or support. A counselor by definition provides advice.
Example 10. CLOCK: TIME:
(A) Watch: Wrist (B) Odometer: Speed
(C) Hourglass: Sand (D)Yardstick:i Distance
Answer: The correct answer is (D)
A clock measures time. A yardstick measures distance. (Function).
The candidate should know about the different types of analogies that are more frequently asked in the question paper.

 

Some of the common analogy types are as follows:
i. Synonyms:
Some words are linked together in a pair which means the same or has a similar dictionary definition
eg., Large~Big
ii. Describing Qualities:
Some pairs have some words in which one word describes the other word, e.g., Hot-Iron.
iii. Class and Member:

Some pairs have words which are based on class and member basis, e.g., Vehicle-Car

iv. Antonyms:
Some pairs consist of the words that are opposite to each other, e.g., Confess-Deny.
v. Describing Intensity:
Some pairs consist of the words in which one describes the intensity of the other, e.g., Anger-Rage
(violent anger).
vi. Function:
In some pairs, a word describes the function of the other word, e.g, Football-Pay.
vii. Manners:
Some words in a speech describe the manners and behavior e.g., Weep-Bitterly
viii, Worker-Workplace :

Some pairs in a word describe the profession and its workplace, e.g., Teacher-Class.

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