Chemistry

Manufacture of Steel by Bessemer Process

BESSEMER PROCESS This process involves the oxidation of impurities of pig iron by oxygen of the air into volatile gases of slag formation. It is followed by the addition of required amount of carbon and other alloying elements. The process is carried out in steal shaped furnace called Bessemer converter.The furnace is made of steel plates and is internally lined with silica (SiO2) /or ...

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Manufacture of Steel :Steel Production/ Making

Manufacture of Steel :Steel Production/ Making Steel is usually made from pig iron by bringing, about the following changes. 1) Reduction of carbon from 4.5% in pig iron to 1.5% in steel. 2)  Removal of the impurities such as Si, Mn, P etc. present in pig iron through slag formation. 3)   Addition of the alloying elements such as Cr, ...

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MANUFACTURE OF WROUGHT IRON

MANUFACTURE OF WROUGHT IRON Wrought iron is obtained from cast iron by a process called puddling process. In this process, cast iron along with some scrap iron is heated in a reverberatory furnace lined with hematite. The molten mass is stirred or puddle throughout with iron rods to ensure the contact of the mass with hematite lining. Hematite oxidizes carbon, ...

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Manufacture of Iron (Pig and Cast Iron)

MANUFACTURE OF IRON (PIG AND CAST IRON) Pig and cast iron are usually obtained from hematite ore. The main steps involved in the process are: CONCENTRATION The ore is crushed to small pieces. It is washed with water to remove impurities like clay, sand etc. The washed ore is then subjected to magnetic field where non-magnetic impurities are separated from ...

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Commercial Forms of Iron

Commercial Forms of Iron There are four commercial forms of iron. These forms differ from each other mainly in their carbon contents. 1. PIG IRON It is the impure form of iron and contains about 3 to 4 % carbon.. ft also contains other impurities such as Si, P,Mn and sulphur. It is brittle and usually used to get other ...

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Iron Ore : Important Ores of Iron

Iron Ore : Important Ores of Iron Iron is the second most abundant metal after Al. It forms about 4.5% of the earth’s crust. ORES OF IRON The important ores of iron are: I. Hematite, (Fe2O3) It contains about 70% iron. Magnetite (Fe3O4) It contains about 72% iron. Siderite (FeCO3) It contains about 48% iron. Limonite (2Fe2O3.H2O) It contains about ...

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Copper Applications : Importance and Uses

Copper Applications : Importance and Uses 1. Copper is used for making electrical equipments due to its high electrical conductivity. It is used as a coinage metal and in ornaments and jewellery for making them hard. Copper is used for making’ various useful alloys such as brass, bronze, gun-metal etc. Copper is used for making water-stills, vacuum pans, steam coils ...

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Copper Hydrometallurgy /Hydrometallurgical Process

Copper Hydrometallurgy /Hydrometallurgical Process This process is used for the extraction of copper from low grade sulfide ore. In this process, the crushed and ground ore in bulk (about 100,000 tons) is exposed to air and water in big tanks. The air in the presence of water gradually oxidizes copper and iron sulphides to their surphides. The process is completed in ...

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Copper Smelting Complete Process

Copper Smelting Complete Process Modern copper metallurgy is based on the smelting process. Following steps are involved: i. CONCENTRATION OF THE ORE The finely powdered ore is concentrated by froth flotation process. The powdered ore is mixed with water and a small amount of pine oil (a foaming agent). This mixture is taken in a flotation tank. A blast of ...

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Copper Extraction from Sulfide Ores

EXTRACTION OF COPPER FROM SULPHIDE ORES Copper is mostly extracted from the sulphide ore, copper pyrites, by means of the following two processes: i-Smelting process ii-Hydrometallurgical process SMELTING PROCESS Modern copper metallurgy is based on the smelting process. Following steps are involved: i. CONCENTRATION OF THE ORE The finely powdered ore is concentrated by froth flotation process. The powdered ore ...

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