Classification of Steels & Alloy Steels with Composition &Uses



Classification of Steels and Alloy Steels

There arc two main classes of steel.

(1) PLAIN CARBON STEEL

This steel contains iron, carbon and small amounts of other elements. About 95% of the total world, Crude-steel output belongs to this class. It is plain carbon steel is further classified as follows:‑

a)        Low Carbon Steel in which carbon content is bellow 0.2%.

b)       Medium Carbon Steel with carbon content from 0.2 to 0.5%.

c)     High Carbon Steel with carbon content above 0.5%.

The plain carbon steel is used for structural shapes, plates, tube pipes. rods and bars, tools, wheels, axles and rails.

(2) ALLOY STEEL

The steel, in which different elements are added to get a desired alloying effect. Is called alloy steel. Some important alloys of steel are:

(i)STAINLESS STEEL

It has the composition.

Iron = 73 to 79% Chromium = 14 to 18 % Nickel = 7 to 9 %

Stainless steel is a corrosion resistant alloy and is used in making cutlery, automobile Parts, food manufacturing machinery, surgical instruments etc.

(ii)INVAR

The composition of invar is Iron = 64% and Nickel          36 %. It has low co-efficient of expansion and used for making pendulum rods, meter scales, measuring instruments.                                                                                                 •

(iii) NICKEL STEEL

It has the composition, Iron = 96.5 %, Nickel = 3.5 %. Nickel steel is hard and resistant to corrosion. It is used for making cables, automobiles and aeroplane parts.

(iv)  SILICON STEEL

The composition of silicon steel is Iron = 96 to 99%, Silicon F 1 to 4%. Silicon steel is hard and highly magnetic and is used in making magnets and transformers.

(v)  MANGENESE STEEL

It has the composition: Iron • = 85 to 88%, Manganese = 12 to 15 %. This alloy steel is extremely hard and tough. It is used for making safes and rock-drilling tools.

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