Introduction to C Language

 Introduction to C LanguageLANGUAGE:

  • Language is used for communication.
  • For communication with computer we need some languages are called Computer languages or Programming languages.


  • Set of instructions given to computer to perform a task is called computer program.
  • Instructions are written according to some rules are called computer language or Programming Languages.


Three main types are

  • Machine Language
  • Assembly Language
  • High Level Language

Machine Language:

  • All coding will be in form of 0s and 1s are called Binary Code.
  • Difficult to learn and understand.

Assembly Language:

  • Symbols are used instead of binary code
  • Easier than Machine Language but hard to learn.

High Level Language (HLLs):

  • Instructions are written in these languages are very Close to Human Language.
  • Very powerful than Machine and Assembly Languages.
  • Easier to Learn and Understand.
  • Used for writing application programs.
  • Examples are BASIC, C, C++, COBOL (etc)

Characteristics (Features) of High Level Language:

  • Machine Independent (Program written in high level language can be run on any computer system).
  • Well defined Syntax and Standard (Syntax are rules to write a source code).
  • Easy to Learn and Understand (Easy to learn as compare to machine languages).
  • Shorter Programs (Programs are shorter than programs written in machine language).
  • Source is understandable by other programmers (Instructions are written in English words so any programmer can understand source code).

Source Code:

  • A Computer Program written in a High Level Language is called Source Code.
  • Computer can’t run this Program.

Object Code:

  • Computer Program in the form of machine language (0, 1) is called object code.
  • Computer can run this code directly.


Common translators are

  • Compiler
  • Interpreter
  • Assembler


  • Translate source code into object code as whole.
  • Saves Compiled file called Object file .
  • Computer will run object file.
  • If there is any error in the source program, compiler tells about error at time of compilation.
  • All errors must be removed for successful compilation.


  • Translate source instructions one by one and executes them immediately.
  • If any error occur program tells about error and stops program execution.
  • Does not make object file.
  • Slow and Time Consuming method.


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