Pyrometallurgical Unit Operations (Fire metallurgy)

Pyrometallurgical Unit Operations (Fire metallurgy)

Pyrometallurgy covers metallurgical operations that involve processing at temperatures substantially above ambient conditions, generally involving chemical reactions as distinct from metal casting which involves only a physical transformation (i.e. solidification). Some important metals such as Iron and steel, nickel and tin are exclusively produced with this method. Pyromet unit operations include calcining, roasting, reduction, smelting. refining and recycling.


It involves the decomposition of a mineral and removal of (CO2, water, organic matter etc. )

CaCO3 →  CaO + CO2


This is carried out at high temperature but it involves the combination of the heating gases with the minerals. It is usually an oxidizing process.


The agglomeration of fine particles at high temperatures is called sintering.


It is that process in which the oxides get reduced to give molten metals

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