Electrometallurgy involves processing with the passage of electrical current; it can be in an aqueous system or can be at temperatures substantially above ambient conditions in fused salt systems, it generally involves chemical reactions to either precipitate a metal from the liquid phase or to refine a metal by transferring the metal from an anode to a cathode leaving the impurities in the anode behind. This process is expensive and is applied only if pyrometallurgical or hydrometallurgical methods fail due to one reason or the other. Thus the production of aluminium and magnesium, beryllium, sodium and calcium is exclusively based on this method. All of these metals are highly reactive and it is not possible to extract them under ordinary conditions by electro deposition from solution. The electrolysis of the molten mass is therefore carried out.
Now the ores have been concentrated, the subsequent steps for the production of metals vary depending upon their nature and types of ore. Therefore, the other metallurgical operations will be discussed along with the metallurgy of the corresponding metal.